Liyanage H, Liaw ST, Jonnagaddala J, et al. Artificial Intelligence in Primary Health Care: Perceptions, Issues, and Challenges. Yearbook of Medical Informatics 2019.

Background: Artificial intelligence (AI) is heralded as an approach that might augment or substitute for the limited processing power of the human brain of primary health care (PHC) professionals. However, there are concerns that AI-mediated decisions may be hard to validate and challenge, or may result in rogue decisions. Objective: To form consensus about perceptions,

Kocaballi AB, Ijaz K, Laranjo L, Quiroz JC, Rezazadegan D, Tong HL, Willcock S, Berkovsky S, Coiera E. Envisioning an artificial intelligence documentation assistant for future primary care consultations: A co-design study with general practitioners. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association. 2020.

Objective The study sought to understand the potential roles of a future artificial intelligence (AI) documentation assistant in primary care consultations and to identify implications for doctors, patients, healthcare system, and technology design from the perspective of general practitioners. Materials and Methods Co-design workshops with general practitioners were conducted. The workshops focused on (1) understanding

Kocaballi AB, Coiera E, Tong HL, White S, Quiroz JC, Rezazadegan F, Willcock S, Laranjo L. A network model of activities in primary care consultations. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association. 2019; 26(10):1074-82.

Objective The objective of this study is to characterize the dynamic structure of primary care consultations by identifying typical activities and their inter-relationships to inform the design of automated approaches to clinical documentation using natural language processing and summarization methods. Materials and Methods This is an observational study in Australian general practice involving 31 consultations