U. Gurjav, P. Jelfs, G. A. Hill-Cawthorne, B. J. Marais and V. Sintchenko. (2015). Genotype heterogeneity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis within geospatial hotspots suggests foci of imported infection in Sydney, Australia. Infect Genet Evol.

Abstract: In recent years the State of New South Wales (NSW), Australia, has maintained a low tuberculosis incidence rate with little evidence of local transmission. Nearly 90% of notified tuberculosis cases occurred in people born in tuberculosis-endemic countries. We analyzed geographic, epidemiological and genotypic data of all culture-confirmed tuberculosis cases to identify the bacterial and

S. Fu, S. Octavia, M. M. Tanaka, V. Sintchenko and R. Lan. (2015). Defining the Core Genome of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium for Genomic Surveillance and Epidemiological Typing. J Clin Microbiol (Vol. 53, pp. 2530-8).

Abstract: Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is the most common Salmonella serovar causing foodborne infections in Australia and many other countries. Twenty-one S. Typhimurium strains from Salmonella reference collection A (SARA) were analyzed using Illumina high-throughput genome sequencing. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 21 SARA strains ranged from 46 to 11,916 SNPs, with an average of

U. Gurjav, B. Burneebaatar, E. Narmandakh, O. Tumenbayar, B. Ochirbat, G. A. Hill-Cawthorne, B. J. Marais and V. Sintchenko. (2015). Spatiotemporal evidence for cross-border spread of MDR-TB along the Trans-Siberian Railway line. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis (Vol. 19, pp. 1376-82).

Abstract: BACKGROUND: Mongolia has the fifth highest incidence of tuberculosis (TB) in the Western Pacific Region, with high rates of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB). OBJECTIVE: To examine the recent spatiotemporal dynamics of MDR-TB in Mongolia. METHODS: All MDR-TB cases diagnosed from 2004 to 2012, identified from the National Tuberculosis Control Programme database, were included in the

V. Sintchenko and E. C. Holmes. (2015). The role of pathogen genomics in assessing disease transmission. BMJ (Vol. 350, pp. h1314).

Abstract: Whole genome sequencing (WGS) of pathogens enables the sources and patterns of transmission to be identified during specific disease outbreaks and promises to transform epidemiological research on communicable diseases. This review discusses new insights into disease spread and transmission that have come from the use of WGS, particularly when combined with genomic scale phylogenetic

X. Zhou, Y. Wang, G. Tsafnat, E. Coiera, F. T. Bourgeois and A. G. Dunn. (2015). Citations alone were enough to predict favorable conclusions in reviews of neuraminidase inhibitors. J Clin Epidemiol (Vol. 68, pp. 87-93).

Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To examine the use of supervised machine learning to identify biases in evidence selection and determine if citation information can predict favorable conclusions in reviews about neuraminidase inhibitors. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Reviews of neuraminidase inhibitors published during January 2005 to May 2013 were identified by searching PubMed. In a blinded evaluation, the

F. Magrabi, S. T. Liaw, D. Arachi, W. B. Runciman, E. Coiera and M. R. Kidd. (2015). Identifying patient safety problems associated with Information Technology in general practice: an analysis of incident reports. BMJ Qual Saf.

Abstract: Objective: To identify the categories of problems with information technology (IT), which affect patient safety in general practice. Design: General practitioners (GPs) reported incidents online or by telephone between May 2012 and November 2013. Incidents were reviewed against an existing classification for problems associated with IT and the clinical process impacted. Participants and setting:

F. Magrabi, M. Baker, I. Sinha, M. S. Ong, S. Harrison, M. R. Kidd, W. B. Runciman and E. Coiera. (2015). Clinical safety of England’s national programme for IT: a retrospective analysis of all reported safety events 2005 to 2011. Int J Med Inform (Vol. 84, pp. 198-206).

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To analyse patient safety events associated with England’s national programme for IT (NPfIT). METHODS: Retrospective analysis of all safety events managed by a dedicated IT safety team between September 2005 and November 2011 was undertaken. Events were reviewed against an existing classification for problems associated with IT. The proportion of reported events per

A. Y. S. Lau, A. Arguel, S. Dennis, S. T. Liaw and E. Coiera. (2015). “Why Didn’t it Work?” Lessons From a Randomized Controlled Trial of a Web-based Personally Controlled Health Management System for Adults with Asthma. Journal of Medical Internet Research (Vol. 17, pp. e283).

Abstract: Background: Personally controlled health management systems (PCHMS), which may include a personal health record (PHR), health management tools, and information resources, have been advocated as a next-generation technology to improve health behaviors and outcomes. There have been successful trials of PCHMS in various health settings. However, there is mixed evidence for whether consumers will

J. C. Kwong, N. McCallum, V. Sintchenko and B. P. Howden. (2015). Whole genome sequencing in clinical and public health microbiology. Pathology (Vol. 47, pp. 199-210).

Abstract: Genomics and whole genome sequencing (WGS) have the capacity to greatly enhance knowledge and understanding of infectious diseases and clinical microbiology. The growth and availability of bench-top WGS analysers has facilitated the feasibility of genomics in clinical and public health microbiology. Given current resource and infrastructure limitations, WGS is most applicable to use in

T. Hodgson and E. Coiera. (2015). Risks and benefits of speech recognition for clinical documentation: a systematic review. J Am Med Inform Assoc.

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To review literature assessing the impact of speech recognition (SR) on clinical documentation. METHODS: Studies published prior to December 2014 reporting clinical documentation using SR were identified by searching Scopus, Compendex and Inspect, PubMed, and Google Scholar. Outcome variables analyzed included dictation and editing time, document turnaround time (TAT), SR accuracy, error rates

A. G. Dunn, J. Leask, X. Zhou, K. D. Mandl and E. Coiera. (2015). Associations Between Exposure to and Expression of Negative Opinions About Human Papillomavirus Vaccines on Social Media: An Observational Study. J Med Internet Res (Vol. 17, pp. e144).

Abstract: BACKGROUND: Groups and individuals that seek to negatively influence public opinion about the safety and value of vaccination are active in online and social media and may influence decision making within some communities. OBJECTIVE: We sought to measure whether exposure to negative opinions about human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines in Twitter communities is associated with

X. Cai, O. Perez-Concha, E. Coiera, F. Martin-Sanchez, R. Day, D. Roffe and B. Gallego. (2015). Real-time prediction of mortality, readmission, and length of stay using electronic health record data. J Am Med Inform Assoc.

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To develop a predictive model for real-time predictions of length of stay, mortality, and readmission for hospitalized patients using electronic health records (EHRs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A Bayesian Network model was built to estimate the probability of a hospitalized patient being “at home,” in the hospital, or dead for each of the next